Inflammation among the lung is called Pneumonia. Pneumonias may be caused by specific pathogens like Pneumococcus or Klebsiella or by mixed flora which attain the lungs being a result of aspiration of infected material from the upper respiratory passages, stomach or exterior. Disorderly group called aspiration pneumonia. Pneumococcal pneumonia is the commonest type in grown-ups. pneumococcal vaccine
Other Organisms causing Pneumonia
This one is more frequently found in debilitated subjects and in hospitalized individuals. Respiratory viral infections predispose to staphylococcal pneumonia. This is a dreaded complication children with cystic fibrosis and also patients receiving immunosuppressant therapy. The organisms reach the lung through the blood stream (Pyemia) or along the respiratory paragraphs.
Clinical features: The onset is with mild symptoms, but soon the condition worsens to make grave toxemia, purulent and blood stained sputum and cyanosis. The lesions are often multiple, giving rise to thin-walled infections. It may frequently spread to the pleura to produce emphysema or pyo-pneumothorax. Signs of lobar consolidation may stop evident. Diagnosis should be suspected off the clinical setting and the existence of of toxemia fat regarding your proportion towards the pulmonary joins. Gram-staining of sputum and culture reveal the microorganisms. Mortality varies from 20-25%.
Treatment: At the moment most strains of hospitalized-acquired staphylococci produce penicillinase. Hence penicillinase-resistant drugs such as Cephalothin, cloxacillin or vancomycin may be necessary. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment ensures method.
Klebsiella Pneumonia (Friedlander’s Pneumonia)
This is often a grave illness seen in patients across the age of 40 numerous years. Debilitating diseases, alcoholism, and malnutrition predispose this condition. Common site of involvement is the posterior segment of the top of lobe. The condition sets with sudden chills, rigors, fever, dyspnea and cough with gelationous thick sputum streaked with maintain. The course may be subacuate or fulminant and fatal. Abscess formation is often a common complication. Mortality is high, ranging around 30%.
Once issue is suspected, urgent treatment with Cephalexin 1g, 6h, intramuscular administration should be started. Gentamicin in a dose of 5-8mg/Kg may be added as the second anti-biotic. Treatment may have to be continued for a couple of weeks or more to ensure cure.